Space weather

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Update
WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 16.05.2022 05.00 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 May 16 0500 UTC
Valid To: 2022 May 16 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 15.05.2022 02.53 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 May 15 0247 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 15.05.2022 02.30 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 May 15 0229 UTC
Valid To: 2022 May 15 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 11.05.2022 19.39 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 May 11 1824 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1258 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 11.05.2022 18.57 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 May 11 1824 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 10.05.2022 16.39 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 May 10 1451 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 10.05.2022 14.54 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 May 10 1407 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 10.05.2022 14.47 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 May 10 1358 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1767 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: 10.05.2022 14.12 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2022 May 10 1350 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 May 10 1355 UTC
End Time: 2022 May 10 1359 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.5
Location: S29W01
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 10.05.2022 13.58 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 May 10 1355 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 9.05.2022 04.36 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 May 09 0436 UTC
Valid To: 2022 May 09 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 8.05.2022 14.56 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3235
Begin Time: 2022 May 01 1335 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1408 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 7.05.2022 12.32 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3234
Begin Time: 2022 May 01 1335 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1355 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 6.05.2022 06.33 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3233
Begin Time: 2022 May 01 1335 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1688 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 5.05.2022 14.26 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3232
Begin Time: 2022 May 01 1335 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1468 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 5.05.2022 01.15 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 May 04 2233 UTC

Comment: Observed by PAL

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 4.05.2022 11.56 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3231
Begin Time: 2022 May 01 1335 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2317 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: 4.05.2022 09.19 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 May 04 0845 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 May 04 0859 UTC
End Time: 2022 May 04 0910 UTC
X-ray Class: M5.7
Location: S16W19
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 4.05.2022 09.01 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 May 04 0858 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 4.05.2022 00.40 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 May 04 0000 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: 4.05.2022 00.33 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 May 04 0008 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 May 04 0019 UTC
End Time: 2022 May 04 0025 UTC
X-ray Class: M5.3
Location: S30E91
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 4.05.2022 00.21 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 May 04 0018 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 3.05.2022 21.58 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 May 03 2042 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: 3.05.2022 13.53 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2022 May 03 1309 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 May 03 1325 UTC
End Time: 2022 May 03 1331 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.1
Optical Class: sf
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 3.05.2022 13.30 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 May 03 1323 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 3.05.2022 08.26 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3230
Begin Time: 2022 May 01 1335 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1539 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2.05.2022 12.43 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3229
Begin Time: 2022 May 01 1335 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1554 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 1.05.2022 13.53 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 May 01 1335 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 30.04.2022 14.40 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 30 1345 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1071 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: 30.04.2022 14.29 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 30 1337 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 30 1347 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 30 1352 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.1
Location: N15W96
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 30.04.2022 13.47 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 30 1344 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 30.04.2022 10.23 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 30 0957 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1154 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 30.04.2022 05.42 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 30 0540 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 30.04.2022 02.34 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4098
Valid From: 2022 Apr 30 0038 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Apr 30 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 30.04.2022 02.33 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 30 0233 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 30 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 30.04.2022 02.15 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 30 0207 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 30.04.2022 00.38 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 30 0038 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 30 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 29.04.2022 12.55 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 29 1220 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 29.04.2022 07.48 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 29 0720 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 29 0721 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 29 0728 UTC
Duration: 8 minutes
Peak Flux: 230 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 132 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 29.04.2022 05.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4096
Valid From: 2022 Apr 29 0126 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Apr 29 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 29.04.2022 02.58 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 29 0259 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 29.04.2022 01.26 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 29 0126 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 29 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 28.04.2022 05.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4094
Valid From: 2022 Apr 27 1310 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Apr 28 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 28.04.2022 00.00 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 27 2359 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 27.04.2022 23.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 27 2338 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 28 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 27.04.2022 20.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4093
Valid From: 2022 Apr 27 1310 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Apr 28 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 27.04.2022 17.11 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 27 1652 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 27 1652 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 27 1652 UTC
Duration: 1 minutes
Peak Flux: 280 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 150 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 27.04.2022 14.03 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 27 1402 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 27.04.2022 13.57 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 27 1356 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 27 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 27.04.2022 13.53 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 27 1350 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 27.04.2022 13.09 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 27 1310 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 27 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 26.04.2022 20.11 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Apr 27: None (Below G1) Apr 28: None (Below G1) Apr 29: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 24.04.2022 00.03 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 23 2359 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-0000 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 23.04.2022 21.38 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 23 2137 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 24 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 23.04.2022 12.05 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 23 1200 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 23.04.2022 10.37 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 23 1036 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 23 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 22.04.2022 14.15 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 22 1328 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 323 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 21.04.2022 23.26 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 21 2246 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 925 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 21.04.2022 05.52 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4089
Valid From: 2022 Apr 20 2312 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Apr 21 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 21.04.2022 03.15 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 21 0215 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 21.04.2022 02.32 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 21 0157 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1132 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 21.04.2022 02.24 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 21 0153 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 21 0155 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 21 0156 UTC
Duration: 3 minutes
Peak Flux: 370 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 160 sfu

Comment: Castili-U

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: 21.04.2022 02.16 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 21 0147 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 21 0159 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 21 0205 UTC
X-ray Class: M9.6
Location: N20E24
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 21.04.2022 02.03 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 21 0155 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 20.04.2022 23.17 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 20 2312 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 21 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 20.04.2022 13.33 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3226
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 16 1715 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2219 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 20.04.2022 04.31 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 20 0355 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1630 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: 20.04.2022 04.28 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 20 0341 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 20 0357 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 20 0404 UTC
X-ray Class: X2.2
Location: S30W90
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 20.04.2022 04.26 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 20 0354 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 20 0355 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 20 0355 UTC
Duration: 1 minutes
Peak Flux: 509 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 160 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 20.04.2022 04.03 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 20 0355 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: 20.04.2022 01.59 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 20 0120 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 20 0136 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 20 0144 UTC
X-ray Class: M7.2
Location: S28W99
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 20.04.2022 01.38 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 20 0131 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 19.04.2022 10.34 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3225
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 16 1715 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1646 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 19.04.2022 05.35 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 19 0534 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 19 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 19.04.2022 05.08 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 19 0448 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 19 0449 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 19 0449 UTC
Duration: 1 minutes
Peak Flux: 150 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 135 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 18.04.2022 21.56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 18 2156 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 19 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 18.04.2022 12.51 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3224
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 16 1715 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2314 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 17.04.2022 23.50 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 17 2234 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 837 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 17.04.2022 13.21 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3223
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 16 1715 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1234 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: 17.04.2022 04.20 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 17 0317 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 17 0334 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 17 0351 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.1
Location: N14E75
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 17.04.2022 04.15 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 17 0328 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Apr 17 0328 UTC
End Time: 2022 Apr 17 0329 UTC
Duration: 2 minutes
Peak Flux: 130 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 122 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 17.04.2022 04.11 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Apr 17 0328 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 614 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 17.04.2022 03.29 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 17 0329 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 17.04.2022 02.08 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Apr 17 0205 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Apr 17 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 16.04.2022 17.32 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Apr 16 1715 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Sunspot number Sunspot area 10E-6 New regions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Flares
X-ray Optical
C M X S 1 2 3
16/04/22 122 78 730 3 * 9 1 0 0 0 0 0
17/04/22 135 74 970 0 * 10 4 1 8 0 0 0
18/04/22 141 79 1390 0 * 13 3 0 5 0 0 0
19/04/22 160 68 1820 1 * 10 3 0 3 0 0 0
20/04/22 160 80 1400 1 * 13 3 1 13 1 0 0
21/04/22 164 119 1760 0 * 4 1 0 10 2 0 0
22/04/22 163 101 1590 0 * 7 2 0 2 0 1 0
23/04/22 160 118 1430 2 * 8 0 0 5 0 0 0
24/04/22 159 112 1600 0 * 3 0 0 2 0 0 0
25/04/22 157 94 1320 1 * 8 2 0 7 0 0 0
26/04/22 150 126 1170 2 * 7 0 0 3 0 0 0
27/04/22 142 95 910 0 * 4 0 0 7 1 0 0
28/04/22 132 118 800 1 * 7 0 0 2 0 0 0
29/04/22 124 90 450 1 * 7 2 0 2 1 0 0
30/04/22 120 50 390 0 * 15 4 1 0 0 0 0
01/05/22 109 36 280 0 * 5 0 0 1 0 0 0
02/05/22 112 69 240 2 * 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
03/05/22 114 53 270 0 * 7 1 1 4 0 0 0
04/05/22 130 64 530 1 * 15 5 0 19 3 0 0
05/05/22 120 85 720 0 * 30 2 0 11 0 0 0
06/05/22 119 64 650 0 * 15 0 0 2 0 0 0
07/05/22 118 66 660 0 * 4 0 0 1 0 0 0
08/05/22 119 89 740 1 * 6 0 0 1 0 0 0
09/05/22 117 71 450 0 * 6 0 0 2 0 0 0
10/05/22 116 62 420 0 * 9 0 1 17 2 0 0
11/05/22 133 84 450 2 * 17 3 0 24 3 0 0
12/05/22 133 112 580 1 * 9 1 0 11 0 0 0
13/05/22 150 120 610 2 * 8 0 0 6 0 0 0
14/05/22 153 105 580 1 * 10 1 0 10 0 0 0
15/05/22 154 129 720 2 * 2 0 0 1 0 0 0
Average/Total 136 87 854 24 270 38 5 179 13 1 0

Summary graph

Flares

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



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Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
17/04/22 11 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 2
18/04/22 8 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 1
19/04/22 7 3 3 2 2 2 1 0 1
20/04/22 9 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 3
21/04/22 10 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 1
22/04/22 7 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 2
23/04/22 13 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 4
24/04/22 5 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0
25/04/22 5 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
26/04/22 3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
27/04/22 21 2 2 1 1 5 4 3 5
28/04/22 14 3 3 4 2 2 2 3 3
29/04/22 15 4 4 3 2 3 3 3 2
30/04/22 18 4 5 3 3 2 3 2 2
01/05/22 9 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 2
02/05/22 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 1
03/05/22 7 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2
04/05/22 6 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2
05/05/22 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
06/05/22 5 0 1 2 1 2 2 1 1
07/05/22 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 2
08/05/22 6 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2
09/05/22 8 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 0
10/05/22 3 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 1
11/05/22 6 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
12/05/22 8 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2
13/05/22 7 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 3
14/05/22 7 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 2
15/05/22 12 4 4 3 2 3 3 2 1
16/05/22 10 2 3 3

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
17/04/22 9 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2
18/04/22 7 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 1
19/04/22 8 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1
20/04/22 9 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 3
21/04/22 9 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 1
22/04/22 7 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 2
23/04/22 12 2 2 2 3 4 2 2 3
24/04/22 5 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 0
25/04/22 4 0 0 1 2 2 1 2 1
26/04/22 3 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 1
27/04/22 16 2 2 2 1 5 3 3 4
28/04/22 11 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 3
29/04/22 10 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2
30/04/22 16 4 4 3 1 3 4 2 2
01/05/22 9 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2
02/05/22 6 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1
03/05/22 7 1 2 3 2 2 1 2 2
04/05/22 6 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 2
05/05/22 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1
06/05/22 0 1 2 1 2 2 1
07/05/22 4 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 2
08/05/22 7 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
09/05/22 8 2 4 2 2 2 1 1 1
10/05/22 2 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1
11/05/22 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
12/05/22 8 2 2 1 1 3 2 3 2
13/05/22 7 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 3
14/05/22 9 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 2
15/05/22 10 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2
16/05/22 1 3 3

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
17/04/22 11 2 3 1 4 2 3 2 1
18/04/22 14 1 2 4 5 2 2 2 2
19/04/22 10 2 3 2 3 4 1 0 1
20/04/22 6 2 2 3 1 0 1 1 2
21/04/22 22 3 3 5 5 4 2 2 2
22/04/22 6 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
23/04/22 23 2 2 1 6 5 3 2 3
24/04/22 3 2 2 1 0 1 1 1 0
25/04/22 8 0 1 1 5 2 1 1 0
26/04/22 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
27/04/22 22 2 2 1 1 6 5 3 3
28/04/22 21 3 3 5 5 3 3 2 2
29/04/22 23 2 4 3 5 5 4 2 2
30/04/22 33 5 5 5 5 3 5 1 1
01/05/22 11 1 3 3 4 3 1 1 2
02/05/22 3 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 0
03/05/22 10 1 2 3 3 4 1 1 1
04/05/22 13 2 2 5 3 3 1 1 1
05/05/22 4 0 2 3 0 1 1 1 0
06/05/22 0 0 3 2 3 1 0
07/05/22 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
08/05/22 7 2 1 1 3 2 3 1 1
09/05/22 11 2 4 4 2 3 1 1 0
10/05/22 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
11/05/22 4 0 1 1 2 1 2 1 2
12/05/22 13 2 4 3 1 4 3 2 1
13/05/22 6 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 1
14/05/22 6 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1
15/05/22 18 4 4 4 4 3 2 2 1
16/05/22 1 3 4

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Data source: NOAA, Wikipedia

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